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1350s

1350

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January

Boccaccio finishes Decameron
February
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August 22 Phillip VI dies; he is succeeded by Jean II

29: at Winchelsea, Edward III defeats a Biscayan fleet under Don Carlos de la Cerda, prince of the royal house of Castile (allies of the French)

September
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1351

January The Combat of the Thirty: Sir Richard Bamborough, to avoid a siege of his garrison at Ploermel agrees to a combat of thirty champions against the French force under Robert de Beaumanoir. Sir Richard dies in the combat. Robert Knollys and Hugh Calveley are captured

The Order of the Star is founded by Jean II.

Henry of Grosmont crusades with the Teutonic knights in Prussia. Henry is also made Duke of Lancaster and granted the county of Lancaster as a palatinate.

February
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August 1
September
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1352

January Sir Thomas Dagworth is ambushed and killed by a Breton traitor. His successor, Sir Walter Bentley, wins a battle at Mauron.
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1353

January

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1354

January
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1355

January Edward III again adopts a three column strategy.
February
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September Edward, Prince of Wales, now Lieutenant in Guyenne, arrives in Bordeaux
October Edward the prince leads an all-mounted, two-month chevauchee into southern France, collecting enormous booty.

Edward III takes his army to Calais and ravages Picardy, returning to England a month later

November
December

1356

January A few weeks after the battle of Poitiers, the Estates meets in Paris and demands reforms.

With the French king captured at Poitiers, the war seems over.

February 2: "Burnt Candlemas" A day of destruction in the middle of Edward III's retaliatory raid of devastation against the Scots.
March
April Jean II, suspecting that the dauphin (the heir to the throne) and Charles of Navarre, the Duke of Normandy, are plotting against him, has the duke imprisoned and executes some of the duke's cronies.
May
June
July The Duke of Lancaster lands in Brittany and raids into Normandy
August 4: Edward the prince begins a chevauchee supposedly coordinated with Lancaster in Normandy and Edward III in the north. He moves leisurely, never attacking a fortified place and never engaging a significant force of the enemy
September 11: Edward the prince learns that Jean II and a large army is within a day or two's march. He decides to "bug out" with his loot.

17: Edward the prince's force blunders into French troops astride his line of retreat.

17-19 Edward negotiates with the French.

19: the Battle of Poitiers: Jean II is captured and sent to the Tower of London.

October
November
December

1357

January In the waning of the "war," unwanted soldiers form groups and fend for themselves. These "routiers" ravage the countryside.

The French impose the "salt levy" their first peacetime tax.

The Lay-Folks Catechism by John Thoresby, Archbishop of York, appears. It is in English verse and is designed to instill a basic knowledge of the faith in the laity.

Near the end of the year. Charles of Navarre escapes from prison and forces the dauphin to pardon him.

February
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May 24: Edward, Prince of Wales, formally rides in triumph into London; Jean II is lodged at Savoy palace.
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1358

January In the first Treaty of London, the dauphin cedes sovereignty of almost one-third of France to England and agrees to a ransom for Jean II of 4 million crowns. In return Edward III renounces his claim on the French throne. Robert Knollys, now a routier captain, becomes the principal captain of the Grand Company, controlling forty castles in the Loire.
February Etienne Marcel (provost of Merchants) and a mob break into the dauphin's chamber, murder the Marshalls of Champaigne and Normandy, and humiliate the dauphin.
March The dauphin flees Paris
April
May The Jacquerie: French peasants arise! Charles of Navarre gathers troops and massacres a mob near Meaux, putting him in the good graces of the French authorities. It is a brief romance.
June
July Etienne Marcel is killed by one of his own supporters. The dauphin returns to Paris.
August Charles of Navarre defeats a royal army at Manconsueil
September
October
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December

1359

January Having only received a part of Jean II's ransom, Edward promulgates the second Treaty of London wherein he demands Normandy, Maine, Anjou, and Touraine be added to the concessions. The Estates decline the terms as "neither bearable not feasible" but Jean II agrees to the terms.
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October 28: Edward III lands at Calais, starting what will be his last campaign and a military failure. However, great expectations are rampant. Many routiers, including Robert Knollys join him.
November 1: Edward marches from Calais. Geoffrey Chaucer is present.
December The siege of Rheims starts. The English camp in the snow.
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